4. Biological pest management: Sciarid fly & shore fly Sciarid flies (Sciaridae) and shore flies (Ephydridae) are pests, especially in young plant material . They can cause damage to seedlings, rootstock and cuttings of many plant species . In the cultivation of mushrooms they can be very annoying and can cause both direct and indirect damage . These flies are often found in moist, organic environments . Entonem Macro-Mite Scia-rid Damage symptoms Solutions • Direct damage can occur to young and/or weak plants in moist, organic environments, when larvae feed on the plants’ roots . This reduces the uptake of water and nutrients, causing the plants to die . Strong plants are only affected at very high levels of infection . • Indirect damage is caused when larvae transmit mites, nematodes, viruses and fungal spores . Adult sciarid flies can also transmit various fungal spores . Larval feeding sites are also potential routes of fungal infection . Methods of control Scia-Rid • Entomoparasitic nematode: Steinernema spp . • Primary target: mushroom fly larvae, fungus gnat larvae • Packaging: third stage nematode larvae in an inert carrier material Entomoparasitic nematodes: the nematode enters a fly larvae through a body opening, feeds and kills larvae within a few days . Predatory mite: adults and nymphs feed on eggs and small larvae . Entomite-M • Predatory mite: Stratiolaelaps scimitus • Primary target: eggs, larvae and pupae of fungus gnats • Packaging: all stages bottled with inert carrier material Macro-Mite • Predatory mite: Macrocheles robustulus • Primary target: eggs, larvae and pupae of sciarid flies, thrips pupae, Lyprauta larvae • Packaging: all stages in cardboard tube with inert carrier material For additional information regarding introduction rates, chemical usage, etc. consult your local Koppert representative or visit www.koppert.com Important! Only use products that are permitted in your country or state. 13

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