Da Vinci’s BRIDGE ICE in 2

Content IN GENERAL Structural Ice Associaton 4 Consortium 5 Juuka, Finland Building with Ice Pykrete Dome Sagrada Familia in Ice Introduction DESIGN Leonardo da Vinci Bridge design BUILDING PERIOD Construction and Building Technology Infl ating the balloon The Infl atable Working conditions Material research 12 13 Transport 14 Building site 16 20 22 26 28 Safety 29 Structural Design 30 32 Cellocrete 34 Candela in Ice Snow Track Finnish volunteers Side projects and experience Project team Side activities Media team Media and press FUTURE Further research and new plans 36 38 40 42 44 48 50 52 Opening 54 56 Colophon 59 6 7 8 10 11 3

A Structural Ice Association In 2013, Arno Pronk came up with the idea to use fi ber-reinforced ice in practice, triggered by past research that have been conducted. The goal was to create the world’s largest ice dome, the Pykrete Dome. Hugo Sanders, founder of Sanders Projects Consultancy, was involved early in the project because of his connections in Finland and especially in Juuka, an area that is ideal for such an ice project. As co-initiator of this project, Hugo Sanders plays an important role in the ice projects in Juuka. His friend Jari Repo was the technical foreman in the first project. Other persons of great importance to the success to this project were Matti Tuominen and Ari Jaaranen. The ‘Pykrete Dome’ project really had a great impact on the municipality of Juuka. The success of the project could lead to an annual event. This of course requires some organization, not only from the Technical University of Eindhoven, but especially from the municipality of Juuka. They supported this vision and together we (started to) develop future ice projects for Juuka . In the winter of 2015 and 2016, I atti Tuominen was the technical Matti Tuominen was the technical foreman from Juuka. Without the help of the municipality of Juuka and the above-mentioned persons in particular, the ice projects could not have been realized. To organize a series of ice events we developed an association. The task of the association is to form a legal organization for annual ice events. The association will cooperate with the entrepreneurs, Governmental organizations, schools, universities etc. The goal of the association is to spread and stimulate similar research and experiments also to other places. 4 Y S R T R Ä U Ä C J T U R A L K I A C E - A N S S O T C I O R E N N E - W W W C . . S E T C R L U A C T U R I O M -

Consortium The Eindhoven University of Technology has been the leading partner in this project. Diff erent disciplines within the faculty of ‘Built Environment’ worked together to achieve a new inspiring ice project: ‘Da Vinci’s Bridge in Ice’. The faculty and university were very enthusiastic and together with University Funding Eindhoven (UFe) they were willing to support the project. From the Eindhoven University of Technology the project was supervised by Patrick Teuff el, Arno Pronk, Rijk Blok and Arjan Habraken. The tutors are all part of the chair Innovative Structural Design (ISD) with leading professor Patrick Teuff el and project leader Arno Pronk. Like in previous years we invited other universities in the Netherlands and abroad to participate in the ice projects in Juuka. In September 2014, the Ghent University became involved in the project. A group of Structural Design students, led by Professor Jan Belis, made structural calculations for the design of the ice cathedral. In January 2015, these students also helped to construct the ice domes in Finland. This year, they realized their own project the Candela pavilion in ice. Students from KU Leuven realized various experimental pavilions along an ice track leading to a frozen waterfall in the Quarry of the Tulikivi stone factory. Furthermore, The Summa College, Sint Lucas and Fontys in Eindhoven have been involved, as well as students and teachers of other universities. Below you fi nd a list of all other universities that have been involved. 5

Juuka, Finland Juuka is a municipality of North Karelia, a province in Eastern Finland. The ice structure will be built on private property owned by Tulikivi, the world’s largest manufacturer of heat-retaining fi replaces. The ‘Pykrete Dome’ and ‘the Sagrada Familia in Ice’ projects really had a big impact on the municipality of Juuka. The success of the projects could Who Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd specialises in business counselling for small and medium-sized enterprises, marketing of the region and development of business in diff erent industries. The company operates in the Joensuu region. What & How Our role is to bring together ideas and operators. We have been involved in the Juuka ice construction projects from the beginning. A large number of companies, organisations and communities that serve ice construction have been created in Juuka. Such activity is the best way to practice collaboration and getting to know each other. In future, these emerging networks will be important tools as we create more work and livelihood to North Karelia and Juuka. In our opinion, the project has in that respect exceeded the targets that were set for it by more than 100%. To Whom The Bridge in Ice has played an important role in bringing together enterprises, education institutions and other operators in Finland as well as between Finland and the Netherlands. This year, we have also had operators from e.g. Belgium, the UK and Russia. The Bridge in Ice project has contributed considerably to reaching one of our key goals, the internationalisation of our region. Future In our region, there is already a knowledge base and a favourable attitude towards development in the fi elds of the forest-based bioeconomy, travel and tourism, and construction. From the point of view of North Karelia and Juuka, it is especially important to promote collaboration in those industries. Jouni Luoma and Jouko Piirainen, JOSEK Ltd be a starting point for an annual event. This of course requires some organization, not only from the Technical University of Eindhoven, but especially from the municipality of Juuka. The mayor of Juuka, Pekka Pietiäinen, supported this vision and together with the local volunteers they formed the driving force for new ice projects in Juuka. The municipality was able to arrange sponsors and a subsidy. The budget of this financial contribution was spent under the responsibility of the steering committee Karelia Ice Pie. Without the help of the municipality of Juuka the ‘The Bridge in Ice’ project could not have been realized. ‘As the new mayor of the Juuka municipality, I am interested in what the municipality and its people stand for. Juuka is known for the soapstone industry, Lake Pielinen and during the recent years for ice building. This has brought international visibility to Juuka. Nowadays ice building has become a part of the personality and profi le of our town. The task of the sciences is the search for truth and to explain what the world is like. The task of the arts is to give visibility and content to the world. Their joint creativity gives us social capital and contributes to our well-being. This project has brought together science and art. At the same time it has brought together people from all over Europe. Here in our small northern municipality, this has succeeded in mutual co-operation between builders and local volunteers. Our thanks go out to the Eindhoven University of Technology, the Aalto University and other universities from Belgium, Great Britain, Portugal, Switzerland and Finland. Thank you to hundreds of volunteers, businesses from our region and to all who sponsored and participated in the project.’ Markus Hirvonen, Mayor of Juuka Municipality 6

Building with Ice In September 2003, I have built an igloo for an exhibition in Amsterdam. Building an igloo in the summer was a great challenge that could be realized with the help of a freezing machine of EasyCool BV. Building with ice has never lost my interest since, so when we got the opportunity to realize the greatest igloo in the world in Finland, in the winter of 2014, we took it with both hands. It was the fi rst major project using fi bre-reinforced ice for building purposes. The use of fibre-reinforced ice made it possible to build a dome with a diameter of 30 meters and the highest dome of 21 meters in the Sagrada Familia in ice project. Da Vinci’s Bridge in ice is a sequel to these projects. It gave us the opportunity to explore new building possibilities for fi brereinforced ice. Just as concrete can be reinforced with steel rods or fibres, ice can be reinforced with wood or paper fi bres. It can increase the compressive and tensile strength of ice by three times more. Ductility can even be increased 20 times. Geoffrey Pyke has been the first to discover the possibilities of reinforced ice. During the Second World War, this technique was used to reinforce the ice on lakes around St. Petersburg in order to make the ice strong enough for allied aircraft to land on. Since then, a few studies have been carried out, but the technique has never been applied in practice. In my view this is regrettable. The use of fi bre-reinforced ice has numerous possibilities compared to plain ice. For example, fibre-reinforced constructions can be much more slender and have a longer span compared to plain ice. Of course we could not assure that we will succeed in delivering the ‘Da Vinci’s Bridge in Ice ’ in seven weeks. As with Da Vinci the process and the idea are more important than the result of one project. Beside the bridge, we were proud to have managed several other projects by diff erent universities and local residents of Juuka. In the past years,the construction of the 30 meter igloo and Sagrada Familia were a toss-up(?). We needed every minute and despite the ‘hot’ weather we managed to succeed. Last year, we had 3 weeks longer and were with a bigger group of people. However, the challenge was also much bigger. Much depended on the weather and the enthusiasm and perseverance of everyone involved. In theory the project would have worked, however a week of 3 degree and rain destroyed the ice constructions just before the scheduled opening. Arno Pronk 7

Pykrete Dome By realizing the Pykrete Dome project in January 2014, the world record for building the largest ice dome was set. The span of the dome was 29.1 meters, 4.1 meters more than the standing record at that time, which was held by T. Kokawa. The shape of the ice structure was based on a geodesic dome with almost no tensile forces in the structure. The Pykrete Dome was based on the designs of Tsutomu Kokawa, which has been experimenting with ice dome structures since the 80’s. The dome was built by infl ating a big balloon below a large reticulated net. This net is anchored into the ground, which will give the correct shape to the balloon when infl ated. When the balloon is fully infl ated, thin layers of water with wooden fi bres and snow are sprayed on top of the balloon which will form a thin layer of ice. The Pykrete Dome project was the fi rst building project that used Pykrete. 8


Sagrada Familia in Ice Sagrada Familia in Ice The ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ is based on the design of the real Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudí. The Sagrada Familia is designed by a model with suspended chains, which is better known as catenary design. A suspended chain or rope will always get the shape of a smooth curve, meaning that the chain is only subjected to tension and absolutely no pressure. If the curve of the chain is turned upside down, it means the shape is only subjected to pressure and absolutely no tension. The principle of catenary design can be 10 very interesting when building with ice, because ice has very low tensile strength. The design of the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ consists of the big tower with a height of 30m (34m with cross), the nave with a height of 12m and the four towers of 21m (2x) and 18m (2x).

Introduction After the successful projects ‘Pykrete Dome’ and “Sagrada Familia in ice” ,we started to make new plans for the winter of 2016. Searching for a new challenge, we came to the conclusion that our sponsors and the community of Juuka in Finland, would be interested in an iconic building with a strong appeal. For us it had to be a new technical and scientifi c challenge. Combining these two starting points and based on the experiments of the last project, we came up with the idea to make a model of the never build Brigde over the Golden Horn by Leonardo da Vinci. A visit to the sources of the bridge in Milan in Italy, inspired us to what would become the final concept of a model based on the most important parts of this bridge. From that moment, it was necessary to start searching for partners who wanted to help us to achieve our goal. The initiative for the project was very well received and many companies wanted to contribute by sponsoring materials. We also looked for cooperation with other universities for technical and organizational input. Due to the size of the project it was clear from the beginning that we could not do everything by ourselves. Therefore, we immediately started looking for master students who could help us to elaborate the design of ‘Da Vinci’s Bridge in Ice’. In September 2015, a team of 10 students committed themselves to be responsible for certain parts or aspects of the building to be realized. To realize the fi nal construction of the ‘Da Vinci Bridge in Ice’ in Juuka, we needed more manpower than in the previous years. The building team consisted of about 180 people. In addition to the project members, several volunteers signed up for the project, including family, friends and fellow students from our university and other universities. The municipality of Juuka also contributed considerably to the success of the project. Although the bridge collapsed because of unusual weather, we have learned a lot and see it as a successful experiment. Without the help of the Juuka municipality and community, and the many volunteers, the project would not have been such a great success. By means of this booklet we want to thank everyone who was involved in the project. We hope that this booklet is a nice memento to the great achievement that we have received all together. Thank you very much for your eff orts and support! Happy readings, Roel Koekkoek, Thijs van de Nieuwenhof and Arno Pronk 11

Leonardo da Vinci For the Bridge in Ice we have found our inspiration in a wellknown genius. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. Besides all these interest he also has been called the father of architecture. Leonardo da Vinci designed a stone bridge in 1502 for the sultan of Istanbul with a span of 240 meters, which has never been built. At that time people thought such a big span 12 could not be realized. The design turned out to be so interesting that there has been done a lot of research on the ‘Galata Bridge’. Even some full-scale models were constructed. In 2001 a pedestrian bridge in wood, based on Leonardo’s design, has been built in Norway, as well as some small ice bridges. On Thursday 24 September, Arno Pronk went to Milan to visit the Museo Nazionale Scienza E Technogia Leonardo Da Vinci. In this museum, a model of the Ponti De Galata bridge, as designed by Leonardo Da Vinci, can be found. Claudio Giorgione (conservator) and Vincenzo Iannone showed the model that was made by Alcide De Rizzardi in 1955.

Bridge design The starting point for the design of the bridge in ice is based on a design made by Leonardo Da Vinci. The original design from the 16th century was developed to span the Golden Horn in Istanbul. This design would have had a span of 240 meters and a width of 24 meters. It consisted of three geometrical principles, namely, a pressed-bow, a parabolic curve and a keystone arch. The bridge would have had the largest span of that time, if the sultan of Turkey would have had approved it. A scale model (1:6) of the Da Vinci Bridge from ice was our goal. Several factors have influenced the final design. We operated as a non – profi t organization and depended on sponsors, participants and the available material and equipment. Research into fi ber reinforced ice is still in its early stages, which means that a lot of material properties are unknown. Together with structural engineers and our participants we started this challenge. During the design process more and more got clear. The research group came up with interesting results and de structural engineers calculated uncountable options. With this knowledge we were able to get to a fi nal design: a bridge with a free span of 35 meters, a total length of almost 70meters and 10 meters high. 13


Transport Friday 18 December 2015 was the big deadline for all of us. A 20 feet container of Transfennica had to be fi lled with all our equipment and prepared materials. Beside all the stuff we needed for the bridge in Ice, Candela pavilion and the Snowtrack, also our private goods where transported with this container. Even food for seven weeks was packed. After 3 hours the container was fully loaded and ready for transport. We also met our colleges from Belgium and all the members of the media team. It felt we already were on our trip to Finland. During the building period, we had a lot of help of the local volunteers. With pickup trucks and mini vans they delivered all the equipment we needed. One of our big sponsors DB Schenker installed a 20 feet heated container where we could store materials and drink a cup of coff ee. Two months after building the Bridge in Ice the container came back to Antwerp. Without the help of all the sponsors we would not have been able to manage the transport of our goods this properly. “DB Schenker stands for the transportation and logistics activities of Deutsche Bahn employing people in 140 countries worldwide. We at DB Schenker want to build bridges between people and help local actors pay it forward. DB Schenker off ers expertise in land, air and ocean transport as well as in contract logistics. We are on top of the game when operating in freezing conditions and on icy roads of eastern Finland. We wanted to support the Bridge in Ice volunteers to reach their dream by providing them with a trailer to store equipment during building process. The same trailer transformed into a stage for the grand opening giving us all a fi rst seat row in the ceremony. We also encouraged our own employees to volunteer in the building process giving us all a chance to be part in something bigger. Even though the weather didn’t act on our behalf this year we are dazzled to see how devoted the volunteers and people in Juuka were in taking the most out of it all. We wanted to inspire everybody to connect and be involved in a piece of ice building history. And that is exactly what we succeeded in achieving.” Pasi Ripatti, Head of Communications and Marketing 15

Building site Last year we were also part of the ice adventure. After the construction of world’s highest Ice Dome of 21 meters we defi nitely wanted more. Besides breaking a new world record,we found a lot of new opportunities. One of the thing we wanted to improve was the building side. The preparation of the year before was amazing, but as this year the project will be bigger,we needed it better organised. In the beginning of December 2015, we were already in Juuka to place the anchors which were supplied by JLD International, a Dutch company which operates a lot in the Netherlands. The fi rst day we put out the locations of the anchors on the building site, which was already prepared by the municipality of Juuka. Together with the local contractor Pielisen Maanrakennus, we fi nished this job in a couple of days. This year we worked with computer controlled air vans and an electric mixing system, and therefore needed some adjustments to the electricity network. For example, an automatically generator was installed, with the help of HSA oy and HydLub oy. Eventhough we had a whole team of mechanics from Summa College from Eindhoven in the 2 and 3 week, there were many things that needed to be done in advance. So with our drawings Metalli Palvelu, a local company that provides engineering and steel construction services, delivered a nice piece of work. During the building period we needed some heavy machinery, Hitachi, Rotator and Pekkaniska delivered a crane, shovel and two cherry pickers. With the right training we were allowed to use these machine on the building side. For all of us it was a huge experience to work with such impressive machinery. 16



Quote Finnish volunteer; “It was nice to show the foreign group how Finnish people built snow walls and snow and ice constructions. Special was that I and other volunteers could help and follow the students with their research experiments. Welcome again!” Pentti Kallinen 19

Construction and Building Technology Mechatronics students of Summa Engineering in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, have helped building a machine to make the Cellocrete pulp and the control system to infl ate the balloon. The technical installation, which was crucial for the success of the project, turned out to work as required on all fronts. In order to make the cellulosepulp we used an IBC-container on which a large mixer was mounted. With a frequency convertor we varied the speed of an electric motor and we determined the optimal speed, power and the blade combination at which the cellulose sheets were best mixed with the water. These IBC-containers were placed on top of a 12m³ container. When the cellocrete pulp is mixed, the mix container can easily be emptied above the collecting container. In the collecting container the pulp should be kept in motion so that it does not sag and/or freezes. Again, we found a similar solution in the form of two large agitators. “In summary, working on this project was a very satisfying for the students because they could really apply their knowledge and skills. Working under extreme thermal conditions was an interesting experience that will not likely be forgotten” Hans van den Elzen, Summa College 20


Inflating the balloon To infl ate the balloon, three 1,5 kW fans were used. Initially, the fans should rotate at a capacity of 100%, but as the pressure in the balloon becomes higher, the fan speed is controlled in such a way that the pressure in the balloon remains at 5 mBar. To realize this pressure sensor, a controller and a control module for each fan were required. The alarm signal had to be observed from a distance and therefore it was reported by light and sound signals. All control equipment was built in a cabinet. Besides the mentioned control components this cabinet also contains a heating element, power circuit breakers, various relays and a UPS system. The UPS maintained the power to secure control/regulation in case of power failure. Together with Sick, Van Dooren Engineering, Wago, Cofely and Maco technologys, Summa College have provided us an important piece of engineering. 22




The Inflatable The construction plan for the bridge is as following. Polyester strips from Scantarp, a leading producer of coated textiles in Northern Europe, with a width of 2 meter are welded together to form the stamped shape of the infl atable. All this is done by Poly-Ned, a company in Holland specialized in textile architecture. They provided us, besides all the knowledge, the right equipment and a huge production hall. In two weeks, we made an infl atable with an surface of 2500 m2 and a weight of 1600 kg. The inflatable is then folded and shipped to the building site in Finland, together with the rope net, which is also produces in the Netherlands and sponsored by Chr. Muller Touw. After that the inflatable will be unrolled and the rope net and the steel cables provided by Mammoet are laid out over the inflatable and attached to the anchors. Now the infl atable is ready for infl ation. The pressure is slowly build up to 0,5 kN/m2 . After this pressure is reached the infl atable can be sprayed with the ice composite. Layer by layer the bridge will be build up until the correct shape is reached. Poly-Ned is active in ‘Textile-architecture’: functional and aesthetic design using textile and wire mesh fabric that may be provided with functional and aesthetic coatings and/or printed material. The company based in Steenwijk, has over 35 years’ experience in the production of infl atable structures, and would like to share this knowledge. As with enthusiastic students and staff of Faculty of Architecture TU Eindhoven. Early this year, a signifi cant number of students from TU / e, led by Arno Pronk already start the 3rd ice building challenge : Bridge in Ice by Leonardo Da Vinci. A prestigious project, which unfortunately could not be fully completed by the high temperature in Finland. Beside knowledge Poly-Ned is providing workspace and the use of necessary equipment. The material needed for the projects will be provided by one of the suppliers. Given the pleasant cooperation and mutual commitment Poly-Ned will certainly open its doors to a 4th challenge. Poly-Ned 26


Working conditions The building site of the ‘Bridge in Ice’ is located on the property of Tulikivi, the largest stone processing company in Finland, and the largest manufacturer of heat-retaining fireplaces in the world. The Tulikivi terrain was perfect for the building site of the ‘Bridge in Ice’ due to the visibility, accessibility and the various facilities. It was possible to use the Stone Center building as our offi ce and we had access to a professional lab for testing ice samples. Diff erent mines are located around Tulikivi, where work continuous even during the winter. This is possible because of the special suits that are worn by the miners. Tulikivi has made these suits available for all builders of the ‘Bridge in Ice’. In addition to the building site and work suits, Tulikivi also ensured the accommodation for the volunteers. Tulikivi has several houses in the area of the building site, intended as holiday homes for employees. During construction of the Bridge in Ice, Tulikivi has made two cottages available with a total of 75 sleeping places. The facilities in the cottages were excellent, with a professional kitchen, a room with pool table and several saunas. For those who wanted to cool down after the hot sauna there was even an ice hole in the frozen lake. Because of the huge interest in this project we had also an extra accommodation in Juuka city centre. In addition to the work suits we also needed gloves and scarves to stay warm. A local sport shop named Elmo Sport provides all kind of clothes for reasonable price for the volunteers. “Through one of our clients, we have become involved in the Bridge Ice project. The question was whether Arcadis could help with a safety plan. The ice-projects have grown over the years. So this includes also a more professional approach to safety. After our introduction to the team we started with the format for a security plan. There is not only taking care of the bridge in ice to consider, but also hiking trail and its surroundings. The result was a security plan that was practicable for both the organization and the Finnish regulator. In February we spent a few days on site to see the security plan in practice, which was actually a work site inspection. It was interesting to make a contribution from a diff erent aspect and we are satisfi ed that they take safety seriously on de building site and around it.” Arcadis “I have been involved in the ice construction projects in the last two years now. I have provided equipment to the staff through my company as well as organized leisure time activities to them. These projects (Sagrada Familia in Ice and Ice Bridge) have been extremely interesting and community enriching events. They have surely enlivened Juuka’s January and February that can otherwise be quite grey and quiet months. And even though the projects haven’t been fully completed, the publicity each has brought has been very positive overall. I, for example, have had many new contacts with the builders involved in these projects. For all the local people in Juuka and nearby towns, this international atmosphere has been something new and interesting. I sincerely hope that these kinds of international projects will also be held in the future and that they will bring positive ideas and innovations to Juuka and whole country of Finland. With these words, I wish amazing and warm summer to all who have been participating in the ice projects!” Jani Halonen, Finnish entrepreneur 28

Safety The organisation of the building site was an important part of the project. Due to the limited space on the site, it was necessary to organize it as efficiently and safely as possible. Safety is an important aspect in a project in which you are almost completely dependent on volunteers. The minimal safety requirements that we had set were to oblige the use of a helmet and safety shoes, while we also made sure that everyone could wear proper clothing for the extremely cold conditions. Furthermore, it was important to make sure no unexpected visitors would enter the building site. Therefore Saher-Aidat sponsored fences to place around the building site. Of course people were welcome to visit, even during the construction, but they were only allowed on the site together with someone from the building team to escort them. This is all mentioned in a safety plan provided by our students in cooperation with Arcadis. Safety is an important aspect, but a good insurance policy for the entire project and project team is from equally importance. AON, a leader in risk management, employee benefi ts and insurance, has sponsored the insurance of the project. 29

Structural design The optimal shape of the bridge depends on several factors, including the maximum stress and maximum deformation. However practical parameters also have an influence, like the accessibility of the bridge. The intention of the project is that people should be able to walk over the bridge, therefore the slope of the bridge cannot be too large. Due to the building method of spraying layers of pykrete, the construction phase should also be taken into account, as not all shapes can be build. The balloon sets the boundary conditions for the bridge, and while the balloon is tailor-made, this mould has its boundaries. With the chosen building method, it is also necessary to check the model for eccentricities, it is almost impossible to prevent an asymmetric shape. Therefore, it is necessary to select a range for which the model will still have enough load bearing capacity. Because of the large amount of unknown properties, several safety factors are applied, also for the fi nal shape there will be a large range for which the model needs to be suffi cient. 30


Material research Reinforcing a material to increase the properties of that material is used for many years. A well known example is reinforced concrete, where the tensile strength is increased by steel reinforcement. Depending on the type and the fi bre of the reinforcement, there are many possibilities to enhance the properties of the concrete. This form of enhancement of the material, by adding a fi bre to a mixture, can also be used for ice. Concrete and ice have a relative high compressive strength, the added reinforcement enhances the tensile strength of the mixture. Research has been done on reinforcing ice with soil, wood and other particles in order to increase its mechanical strength and reduce its brittle behaviour. However, the reinforced ice use as a structural material is still a rather experimental fi eld. The application of materials snow and ice as natural building materials has been used for ages. Indigenous arctic people have used ice and snow as a construction material for a long time The oldest and bestknown ice construction is the igloo, made by Inuit (Eskimo). The aesthetic and environmentally friendly behaviour of ice as a building material has drawn the professional attention of researchers and designers mostly since mid-20th century. Together with Universities from all over the world we did research on cellulose fi bre reinforced Ice. We want to thank Tulikivi for off ering their research centre and Stora Enso for providing 30 tons of cellulose. 32


Cellocrete In a world concerned by the impact of global warming and the need of urgently move to more rational practices and ways of life, initiatives such as the workshop “Juuka in Ice” are excellent examples of what can be done to achieve a better future. It shows us clearly how we can get more with less resources. This project is much more than an eloquent demonstration of how to build sustainable ephemeral structures: it is also a really unique example of a huge platform of volunteer work, done by students and professors of different European countries, in an incredible 34 cooperative atmosphere. It also deserves a special mention the enthusiastic way the project has been progressively adopted by the locals and how they are so proud of it. More than the absolutely amazing expected results, the processes and the lessons learned in such an unpredictable exercise deserve the efforts to actively participate in it. I consider it a very special combination of ambition and simplicity, organization and spontaneity, applied research and creativity. I am a Civil Engineer and I have been a Professor of Structures for a long time in the School of Architecture of the University of Minho, in Portugal. My scientifi c activity is particularly devoted to contribute to the effi cient use of traditional materials and their judicious combination by exploring innovative technological, constructional and structural solutions. I started organising an International Conference on Structures and Architecture in 2010 which will have its 3rd edition in July 2016. We are proud to define it as the world’s leading and largest global conference bridging the gap between both disciplines, structures and architecture. The contributions on creative and scientifi c aspects in the conception and construction of structures, on advanced technologies and on complex architectural and structural applications represent a fi ne blend of scientifi c, technical and practical

innovations in both fi elds. “Juuka in Ice” cannot be more aligned with that vision. I am privileged for the opportunity to participate in the project. I feel like a child who discovers what can be built by mixing only water with cellulose and waits for nature to do the rest. This inspiring hands-on experience makes me remember the last sentences of a poem by António Gedeão entitled Philosopher’s Stone: They do not know, nor dream of, that dreaming commands life. That whenever a man dreams the world leaps forth like a colourful ball into a child’s little hands. Prof. Paulo Cruz, University of Minho 35

Candela in Ice 50 civil engineering students of Ghent University in Belgium worked a full semester on the design of the Candela Pavilion in fibre reinforced Ice. The so-called “hypar” structure is inspired by the works of Felix Candela (1910-1997), a SpanishMexican architect famous for his thin-walled reinforced concrete shell structures. The design and construction are led by Prof. Jan Belis, Kenny Martens, Bert van Lancker and Bram Ronsse. The fi rst task of the students was the formfinding of the balloon, which was used to support the shell during its construction. This was done step by step by means of scale models and by computer simulations of the infl atable, until the right shape was found. In the meantime, material tests were performed to determine the compressive strength and bending strength of the ice reinforced by cellulose fi bres. Also the resistance of the textile for the balloon was tested in diff erent directions, and experiments were performed to quantify the quality of the welded joints. Then, the structural engineering was done. In particular, the minimum thickness of the ice was calculated to provide stability of the shell, also in case of heavy wind and snow. We would like to have a minimum wall thickness of fi ve centimeters at the tops of the outer perimeter, and thicker parts in the valleys between the hypars. The next step was the cutting and welding of the big balloon in a hall of the university. The membrane was delivered on rolls of about two meters wide, so many welds were needed. The curved parts were most diffi cult. Once the whole balloon was ready, a test inflation was organized at the faculty’s campus in Ghent so the last leaks could be fi xed. Then, everything was shipped by boat to Finland. After two weeks of spraying with cellocrete on the inflatable, the freezing period was just long enough to create a good layer of structural ice. After removing the infl atable the result was excellent. 36



                         Snow Track The bridge and pavilions were part of a festival area named the ice paradise. This area was in-between the quarry and stone center. At this ice paradise there was a snow path connection all the ice structures. This path was designed by 28 students of the Catholic University Leuven and named the snow-track. At the snow track there were 6 smaller ice structures named; the candela shell, the frozen forest, the chicken wire cave, the inflatable lamps, the frozen cardboard pavilion, the labyrinth of frozen ropes and the coff ee cabin. The main viewpoint was from the coff ee cabin into the enormous large and 70 meters deep quarry of the Tulikivi stone factory. This particular quarry was not anymore in use and gave us the opportunity to realize a 70 meter high frozen waterfall along the site of the quarry. In the evening the frozen waterfall was enlightened by colored lamps. 39                                                                                                                                             

Finnish volunteers From the last two projects we already knew some of the local residents in Juuka and surroundings. Real friendly and helpful people, willing to show their culture and habitat and truly interesting in the ice projects. This year it was great to meet so many new faces. Not only during the seven weeks building period, but also in the preparation weeks we had before. They learned us Ice-Hockey, Ice Fishing, riding a Finish sledge. We even got invited to eat typical fi nish reindeer. The cultural exchange went also the other way around. We learned them English, showed them the Dutch culture and invite them to our really good party’s. They had never seen dress up parties like the Dutch Carnival. Due to the all these kind of activities we build up a good relationship. And that was very useful for a project like this in an rather isolated place like Juuka. They helped us during the whole building period with all kind of things. The local residents have a lot of building skills from which we have learned a lot. Whereas, they copied our method to build a church out of ice. It’s hard to sum up all the names of the people that have helped us to reach our goals. Some of them left a little quote about how their experience was during this winter time. And like one of the local volunteers told us. “You guys are not only build an ice bridge but surely also between two diff erent cultures”. We can see without the help of all the local residents it would not have been such a great success. A big thank you to all the people who have supported us. 40


Side projects and experience In the beginning of the building period the temperature was far below zero. A perfect temperature to spray water. But before we could spray on the inflatable of the bridge, some additional work has to be done. However, we wanted to make use of the freezing temperature, so we started some little side projects. Jouni Hiltunen It was interesting and nice to be a volunteer worker in Juuka Bridge in ice for everyone involved in the project mukana.Kiitos olleille.I hope so, that will be seen next year in a new project Nunnanlahti. Greetings to all Jounilta. Mr. Jari Nevalainen, Kuljetus Jari Nevalainen Ltd It was interesting to have some diff erent activities during winter time since normal building activities come a halt. Nice to work with such an eager group of students. Problems like language and culture arose but in the end it all was solved. Mrs. Johanna Pajarinen, Kivikylän Herkku Exciting and nice time. It was refreshing to work with and and for students. It was in a positive way a heavy work period (24/7) and when they left I was missing the group. Mr. Aki and Seppo Kallinen, Pielisen Maanrakennus Ltd We supported in many ways the basic work during the building process. It was exciting to cooperate in this international cultural environment. Mr. Pentti Mansikkaviita, Expert It was nice to see how happy and whole heartedly the students were working. The students are now more professional in making snow and snow constructions but due to changing weather conditions they will need more instruction time to react fl exible to the weather changes. Although I worked most of my life everywhere in Europe, this was my fi rst experience with reinforced snow and ice. With an unlimited budget you can make snow even in the desert. Jan Graafmans, volunteer, Tujanranta Consultants A big surprise that students from my Alma Mater, Eindhoven University of Technology, were coming to create world records in my retirement village, Juuka, Finland. With the pride of an alumnus, we tried to create and support an environment, where the creative plans could be realised. The total chaos and clash of culture, weather, technology, design, management, politics and nature caused a pandemonium of events and partial success. In spite of all, we did it. Waiting for your next challenge. Tuula Ikonen-Graafmans, volunteer, Tujanranta Consultants For over three years now, I together with numerous volunteers have been preparing and supporting students accommodation and arrangements for social life in Juuka. It has been fantastic to cooperate with students and creating a big international family. Good memories and welcome to Juuka also during the beautiful other seasons. It is always summertime here! 42 The so called bubble Igloo was made in just 3 days. The pavilion came out really nice due to the blob like mould. The Pavilion was decorated with an real Tulikivi stove and reindeer hides. To give the Icetrack an icy start we build an ice tube entrance. To do so, we used an old balloon of one of the towers of the Sagrada Familia in Ice project. Instead of pulling it vertical, we laid it horizontal on the ground in front of the doors of the Tullikivi Stone Centre. Because of the small span it was possible to use only water and snow as building material. It was not only fun to do, but also a good way for the volunteers to practice with the building method and working conditions.


Project team On the 28th of December, the fi rst students were ready to go to Finland and start building the Bridge in Ice. This group has changed during the seven weeks of building. Students from all over the world, friends and family members came and went during the period of the project. They all had one goal: reach that world record and experience how it is to work in such tough working condition. Most of the volunteers were part of the building team but we had also a so called media-team, care-team and all round volunteers. But we all worked together, combined our tasks and learned from each other. Even though we have done our best to get everyone on the picture (next page), there are still some missing of the more than 190 foreign and local volunteers. It was amazing to see how many people put so much eff ort in this project. 44

“A once-in-a-lifetime-experience. Building impressive ice structures, surviving these inhuman temperatures, experience the typical Finnish culture, giving 95 people a place to sleep (when there’s room for 60..), seeing the Northern Light, but above all, working day and night for creating such a successful project, with your new friends.” Veerle Jansen, volunteer coordinator 45

Side activities Ice fi shing & Snow scooters The volunteers went ice fishing with the local people from Juuka many times. It was possible to do net fishing or ice fishing on the traditional way with a fi shing rod. Many fish were caught and afterwards cleaned and eaten in Tulikivi Club. During ice fishing it was sometimes possible to ride on a snow scooter. With a speed of around 60 km/h builders were fl ying over the lake. Factory tour Tulikivi A tour was given by workers from Tulikivi trough the mine were the soap stones are extracted. In diff erent groups a tour brought us to the mine and the saw factory. It was very impressive to see how the big stones are sawn into perfect smaller pieces by a computerized saw. It was very interesting to see the whole process form the mining up to the end products. Husky tour at Koli In Koli there was the possibility to participate in a Husky tour. Many volunteers and student wanted to participate in this tour. It was a great experience to do! After the husky tour, a visit was brought to Koli National Park. The best-known point in the park is at the 347m high top Ukko-Koli forming a vantage point over the Pielinen lake and forests in the east. Unfortunately, on many days during our stay the fog obstructed the view. Only a few students and volunteers were able to see the beautiful view, standing on top. New Year’s eve On the last day of 2015, all the builders of the ‘Bridge in Ice’ went to the primary school of Nunnanlahti. A party was organized to celebrate new year’s eve. At this party, for many of the builders their future was predicted by tin, there was a campfire where they could fry sausages and a big firework was provided by the people. It was 48 striking that before 12 o’clock many citizens went home, this is because many people in Finland celebrate new year at home in the sauna. The building team went to Tulikiviklubi to celebrate de Dutch new year(1 hour later), and we have end the party in Hotelli Petra of course. Break the Week-Party’s clearly, building the Bridge in Ice and the other ice project had our priority, but to get extra commitment from the volunteers we wanted to organize some extra events. Therefore, we had a weekly theme party’s on Saturday were , all the volunteers and the local citizens were invited to. Furthermore, on Wednesday evenings, we had our Break the Week campfi re party. It was a spontaneous action of our Media-team. It was a nice moment to get to know the new people who had just arrived.


Media team Students from the SintLucas College, a creative vocational secondary school in Eindhoven and Boxtel, were involved in the ‘Bridge in Ice’ project this year. The media team reporting on the project consisted of a number of students from the Audiovisual Production and Photography courses. One student from the Media and Events Management course was involved in promoting and organising events for the project. Liselotte de Haan and Stan van Breemen tell us about their experiences. Try-out Liselotte de Haan, a third-year Media and Events Management student: ‘I was asked to take on a new project set up by the TU/e and use it for my internship. This was the first cooperation between SintLucas and the TU/e; a try-out in other words. So it was all quite exciting, as you can imagine!’ Flexibility required As part of her internship, she contributed ideas for promoting the project, updating social media and preparing events for the seven weeks in Finland. ‘Working as the sole ‘event manager’ for this project was extremely challenging. Even so, I learned so much during those fi ve months that I wouldn’t have it any other way. The most important thing I learned is that you have to be fl exible when you are involved in a 50 project like this. After four months of preparation in the Netherlands, you more or less assume that everything will run smoothly. But I still had a few really tough challenges to overcome. In the face of adversity, you have to think of solutions on the spot. For example, when the equipment wouldn’t work because it was so cold. So being able to handle stress came in useful!’ says Liselotte. Extreme temperature diff erences The members of the media team also had to demonstrate their fl exibility and ability to improvise. Stan van Breemen, a fourth-year student studying Audiovisual Production: ‘Obviously, we had to overcome quite a few problems. For example, temperatures of 38 degrees below zero. Challenging conditions for us and our equipment. Both our hair and the camera shutter froze solid. The huge temperature diff erence between the environment indoors and outdoors mainly aff ected the equipment though. When we came back to our warm offi ce after half an hour of fi lming, moisture started to condense on the camera. Resulting in water in the camera and lenses. Fortunately, all the equipment survived. After all, we are not used to working in these extreme conditions so you simply have to make do. Improvise in other words.’ Fantastic experience Both students see their participation in the ‘Bridge in Ice’ project as an unforgettable experience. Liselotte tells us that ‘in addition to the days spent working, there was enough time to enjoy all the authentic Finnish activities. Ranging from riding snow scooters and dog sledding with huskies to seeing the Northern Lights.’ Stan comments that ‘being thrown in at the deep end is the best way to learn. This project stands head and shoulders above all the other projects I have participated in via SintLucas. We would all like to thank the TU/e and SintLucas for this fantastic experience.’


Media and press During the project we had a lot of media attention. It already started in the beginning of April when we launched our idea of building an ice bridge. In almost all the Dutch newspapers and several television programs, like ‘Een Vandaag’, ‘WNL’ and ‘Hart van Nederland’ we were mentioned. Even the news was picked up outside our borders. During the building process, our so called media-team supported us by making all the photos and videos. Because of the growing media attention they also did the communication with the press and organized interview meetings, took care of our Facebook page, and all other social media items. There were several journalist on location. One local newspaper from Holland ‘Eindhovens Dagblad’ send a journalist for one week and followed us on the building site and during our free time. But also big international TV stations and newspapers like Discovery Channel andStory House Productions were interested in our plans. And even the popular internet page VICE had two articles about the project. Several blogs were updated every week. One of them by Cobouw, a newspaper for the Dutch building industry. They posted a weekly story about the project, so people who were interested could follow it from there. The project was also really popular in Finland. Several television stations came to Juuka to report something about it in the news. And the local newspapers published weekly updates. In the end, the media attention went so fast that the newspapers in Holland were earlier aware of the collapse of the bridge than our own volunteers. On this page you see a collage of the articles that were published around the world. It was a total new but great experience we had with all the media attention. 52


Opening On Saturday February 13th 2016, The grand opening of The Bridge in Ice had started. Unfortunately without a Bridge, Candela Pavilion and a beautiful ice track. But that was no reason to skip the openings ceremony. Everyone had worked so hard the last seven weeks and we wanted to celebrate that. The opening was like a festival, diff erent stages and all kind of things to do. There were tracks for children to play, slide and drive on little snowmobiles. The exposition and gift shops about the project were opened inside the Tulikivi Stone Centre and it was possible to buy some typical Finnish food. After the reception, the opening day was traditionally ended in Hotelli Petra and the adventure of building the Bridge in Ice came to an end. Despite the terrible weather we all had a great day and night. 54

TIMETABLE OPEN FIELD ICE STAGE 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19 .00 20.00 21.00 22.00 Chapel restaurant WALL PAINTINGS Sledge FROM SNOW HILL & SKIDO STORY TELLING by Heikki turunen at the Tipi FATHER FROST 4h Dance INFLATABLE VIEW horse sledge KARAOKE (first floor) STONE CENTER DB SCHENKER STAGE COFFEE CORNER TULIKIVI MUSEUM TULIKIVI AUDITORIUM TULIKIVI RESTAURANT SUNDAY 14 february COFFEE & SNACKS (first floor) TICKET SALE DJ JORRIT LEEMANS COFFEE WITH A VIEW MIIA kosunen reception (only by invitation) Nurmes sepot act dance mo & Laurien MO & LAURIEN fire act DJ JORRIT LEEMANS & GYM SESSION COFFEE WITH A VIEW Ice carnaval part 2 bbq ice carnval part 3 Ice movie Ice movie FOOD AND DRINKs lunch tulikivi restaurant evaluation & brainstorm ice 2017 ? Ice movie Ice movie Ice movie AFTER PARTY with Jorrit Leemans DJ JORRIT LEEMANS 55 speeches 1 speeches 2

Further research and new plans This is a proposal for the design and construct of the highest shell structure in ice by the Structural Ice Association. We invite universities, schools and volunteers to participate in this international project. After our projects in Juuka, Finland, we intend to continue our ice research with a large project in a more stable and cold climate. In Harbin, in the Northeast of China, an annual ice festival takes place. It is the largest ice festival in the world where huge ice towers of solid blocks of ice are built. This would be an excellent location for our research. Therefore we have contacted Harbin Institute of Technology (H.I.T). Professor Yue Wu and Phd student Qingpeng Li of the School of Civil Engineering at H.I.T. supports our initiative. The university invited Arno Pronk to give a summer course of two weeks on ice structures in July 2016. During this visit the project in the winter of 2017/2018 described below can be discussed and arranged. For the design proposal for the Harbin Ice Festival the following aspects have been taken into account: • International cooperation • Showcase for research on reinforced ice • • • • • Shell structures instead of solid ice Inspired on traditional Chinese towers Inspired on European design tradition and culture Ability to compete with the enormous structures of the Harbin Ice Festival Short construction period • Safety • Maximum exposure • “Solid” structure with low risk for failure The design consists of a 30-meter high vertical tube with six entrances. The design is a modern version of a traditional Chinese tower and also refers to a fl amenco dress. To enter the centre of the tower the audience has to climb one of the six staircases made of transparent solid ice blocks. The ice blocks in the staircases are illuminated similarly to most of the solid ice structures in the ice festival (see Fig. 4). In the evening an uplighter at the bottom of the tower will illuminate the sky. The shell of the structure will be constructed by cellulose-reinforced ice. The composite will be sprayed on an infl atable. The infl atable will be removed after fi nishing the ice shell. The aim of this project is to gain more knowledge about the creep behavior of ice and ice composites and the engineering and construction of thin-shell ice structures. Besides the structure will be a new record for highest shell structure in ice. It is our goal to realize the Flamenco Ice Project by an international team consisting of professors, researchers and students from universities all over the world. You are invited to join us. For more information, please visit our website: www.structuralice.com 56


“After months of preparations and seven weeks of working on the building site, we unfortunately lost the battle against the weather. The calculated warmer periods came exactly at the wrong time. At the 8th of February at 4.00 AM during a guard shift, the middle part of the bridge came down due to the melting process of the previous days. Of course we are disappointed, especially because we are convinced that the Bridge in Ice would have been standing on its own. We would like to thank everyone who contributed to our incredible graduation project Da Vinci’s Bridge in Ice. We enjoyed all the cooperation’s and experiences, together we’ve done an incredible job and worked on an unforgettable project.” Roel and Thijs 58

Colophon EDITORS & LAY-OUT Roel Koekkoek Thijs van de Nieuwenhof COVERPAGE PHOTO Thomas Meijerman BACKGROUND PHOTO’S Thomas Meijerman Coen Dalenoord Huig Bartels Peter Verver Sint Lucas Eindhoven PUBLISHER Drukwerkdeal, Deventer. www.drukwerkdeal.nl Nothing in this publication may be reproduced without permission from the Structural Ice Association. The editor states that the content of this booklet is composed carefully with the best intentions. This magazine is made to show the incredible time we had during constructing Da Vinci’s Bridge in Ice and all other ice projects in Juuka, 2016. We would like to thank every contributor for their eff ort. EDITORIAL ADDRESS Arno Pronk Department Built Environment Postbus 513, Vertigo 9th Floor 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands http://www.structuralice.com email: info@structuralice.com ADVERTISMENTS For Information due to sponsoring or memberships, it is possible to contact: info@structuralice.com EINDHOVEN, JUNE 2016 59

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