MUNAgazine Model United Nations Alfrink Model United Nations Alfrink 2020 Worlds apart, one world together Celebrating the 15th edition of MUNA! Exclusive interviews I Articles about MUNA 2020 I Meet the staff I Important conference information I Useful appendices WiFi = Welcome Password = muna2020 MUNA 2005-2020 © ALFRINK COLLEGE

Table of contents Main contents  Introduction by SG  MUNA 2020 theme: Worlds apart, one world together  MUNA 2020 charity: WakaWaka  Meet the staff  Interview with PGA  MUNA 2020 food  MUNA 2020 party  Excursion programme  Important conference information  MUNA 2020 Chairs and issues Appendices  Approval panel infographic  MUN-terminology  List of points and motions  List of introductory phrases  Sample resolution  Sample charge ICJ  Sample game HC  Floor plan  Sponsors  Meme page 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 2

Introduction by SG Dear Delegates, Chairs, MUN-Directors and Guests, In the midst of the preparations for MUNA 2020, I would love to warmly welcome you to the 15th edition of MUNA. We have an incredible staff that has been working very hard and passionately for the last few months on the organisation of this conference, during school but also in their spare time. We cannot wait to welcome everybody to MUNA. I especially like to welcome the National School of Physics and Math from Kazakhstan and Isendoorn from the Netherlands as this is their first time joining the conference. This year’s theme is ‘Worlds apart, one world together’. The idea behind this is that nobody is the same and everyone has their own opinion, own religion and own political views. But does that mean that we cannot live in a pluralistic society where everybody is equal and treated with respect? We at MUNA would love to show you that it IS possible to live together and to talk about our differences. During MUNA there are a lot of people from a different country who all have their own norms and values, therefore I would love to encourage you to start a conversation and talk about your differences and similarities. This will bring us closer together! The charity we are supporting this year during MUNA is a foundation that also has our theme at heart. The WakaWaka Foundation’s mission is to share the sun and improve everyone’s situation on Earth using the sun. This foundation helps locals in developing countries by giving them products for emergency aid. These products are mostly WakaWaka solar products, which are safe, portable, sustainable, and solarbased light sources and power banks. This MUNA I ask you to be inspired by this organisation and to think of how you could help in making this Earth a better place. And please remember that even though you might think that you play only a small part in changing this world, even by taking small steps every day you will get there! I cannot wait to meet you all and I wish everyone a safe trip to our school. Yours sincerely, Xanthe Drabbels Secretary General of MUNA 2020 3

MUNA 2020 theme: Worlds apart, one world together Worlds apart, one world together Every MUNA we try to link the conference to a theme. This year we chose the theme ‘Worlds apart, one world together’. The meaning behind these words is simple: everyone is unique and everyone has their own opinion, own religion, and own political views. The question we then have to ask each other and ourselves is: why can we not live in a pluralistic society where everybody is equal and treated with respect? Answering this question is very important because nowadays in the media our differences are exploited, but our similarities are often forgotten. We are all human beings living on Earth. You do not necessarily need to believe in the same norms and values as other people, however you should be able to respect other people and their norms and values. By respecting others you show that being your own individual self is good and being different is not a problem. During MUNA there are a lot of people from different regions, different countries, and different continents who all have their own opinion, own religion, own political views, and own norms and values. We at MUNA love to show you that living together in peace is possible. MUNA is a place for all of us to come together and celebrate our differences and our similarities. On behalf of me and the entire staff of MUNA, I would like to wish you an amazing conference that will offer you new insights, new ambitions, and new inspiration. Not to mention friendships and experiences that will last you a lifetime. I encourage you to start a conversation, talk about your differences but also about your similarities. This will bring us closer together! — Secretary General 4

MUNA 2020 charity: WakaWaka The charity we are supporting with MUNA 2020 is the WakaWaka Foundation! WakaWaka raises funds for donation of WakaWaka solar products. WakaWaka helps locals in developing countries by giving them products for emergency aid. The WakaWaka solar products are safe, portable, sustainable, and solar-based light sources and power banks. The donated solar products are considered to be among the most valued non-food items by refugees themselves. The WakaWaka Foundation is an international charity based in the Netherlands. WakaWaka provides people in low-income countries with safe, sustainable, and renewable power and light solutions. Their goal is to make solar solutions available to families who live in extreme poverty, in remote regions, or who are forced to leave their homes because of war, natural disaster, or other reasons. Thanks to consumer purchases and partner donations WakaWaka helps everyone to tap into the sun. From outdoor adventurers and festival-goers to earthquake survivors and rural schools, everyone can enjoy solar products and solar power with the same WakaWaka quality. WakaWaka’s mission is to enable sustainable energy access for all. “We see sustainable energy access as a basic human right. Not a luxury. Not a nice-to-have. Not something for the future; something for now. An obvious pre-condition for development, because access to electrical light and power means access to education, to communication, to income-generating opportunities, to selfbelief, and to a better future.” “The sun is the world’s greatest natural energy resource. It’s abundant, it’s sustainable, and it’s available everywhere. It’s the solution for everyone who needs power but doesn’t have access to electricity. So let’s use it.” If you wish to support the WakaWaka Foundation during MUNA 2020, we would be more than grateful to accept a donation. You can donate cash at the charity stall in the hall. At our charity stall, you can also buy “stroopwafels” and other delicious cookies. Furthermore, we will organise a lottery in which you can win a WakaWaka solar product (= a solar-based light source & power bank worth €69,95,-). You can also participate in the Dutch “game”: lucky dip, in which you will always win a prize! All of the raised money will be donated to the WakaWaka Foundation. At the end of the conference, we will hand over a cheque to the co-founder of the WakaWaka Foundation, Maurits Groen. Let’s show WakaWaka that we care! For more information about the WakaWaka Foundation or to buy their products visit: https://wakawakafoundation.org https://waka-waka.com/en/ — Head of Charity 5

Meet the staff Meet the staff: the big brain behind MUNA. Our amazing staff has been working exceptionally hard the last few months to prepare everything for MUNA 2020. Organising this conference was a lot of work and there was a big pressure on our shoulders to succeed as it is MUNA’s 15th anniversary! But we did it; all preparations are finished and we are more than ready for MUNA 2020 to start. Tirsa Los — Deputy Secretary General External (DSGE) — @tirsa_nethanie Nickname: Tirs Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 2 Fun fact: I thought that the D66 (dutch political party) was a highway during the game 30 seconds Relationship status: Haha single Justin & Stan Xanthe & Ties Xanthe Drabbels — Secretary General (SG) & Head Executive of the Conference — @xanthe_drabbels Nickname: Zenti Age: 18 How many MUN(s): 5 Fun fact: I am a twin Relationship status: Single Ties van der Linden — Conference Manager (CM) & Chair — @vdl_ties Nickname: Nick Age: 17 How many MUN(s): 9 Fun fact: I have been in every committee at least once Relationship status: Taken Justin Ros — Head of Special Conference — @jus.192 Nickname: My name is Justin but you can call me Anytime ;) Age: 17 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: ?? Relationship status: Single and ready to mingle Stan Meijers — Head of Special Conference & Chair — @stan_meijers Nickname: Stan the man Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 6 Fun fact: I play the electrical guitar Relationship status: Single Max Amy & Tirsa Amy Siem — Head of Excursion and Transportation —- @amysiem Nickname: Aamie Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: I don’t really like chocolate Relationship status: Single 6 Max Kuitems — Deputy Secretary General Internal (DSGI) — @max.me.myself Nickname: Max (without the Kuitems) Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 (2 as admin, 2 as delegate.) MUNA 2020 will be my 5th! Fun fact: I have no idea what sarcasm is. Also I like music and will not die before I own every kind of instrument Relationship status: Unfortunately, I sail this ship alone. For now.

Meet the staff Romy & Anne-Floor Maaike & Dominique Romy Jansen — Head of Admins — @roomxj Nickname: Roomsoes Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: I’m always late Relationship status: Single Anne-Floor Harms — Head of Admins — @a.nnefloor Nickname: Floor / An Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 1 Fun fact: When I was young I asked my parents if I could sleep in the alphaBED (as if it were a bed filled with letters..) Relationship status: Single Maaike van Lochem — Registration Manager — @maaike.lx Nickname: Don’t have one Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 3 Fun fact: I’m a swimming coach Relationship status: Single Dominique Schouten — Head of Charity — @dominiqueischouten Nickname: Do Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 2 Fun fact: I have never lost a Mario Kart game against my friends Relationship status: Single Shirisha & Jadyn Sophie & Frederique Shirisha Manbodh — Head of Party — @shirishaxx Nickname: Shir Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 3 Fun fact: My sister threw a book to my head when I was younger and I now still have a scar Relationship status: Single Jadyn Sadhinoch — Head of Party — @jadynalysha Nickname: Jay Age: 17 How many MUN(s): This is my first MUN Fun fact: I’m half Indonesian but still white Relationship status: Taken Sophie van den Berg — Housing Manager & Head of Approval Panel — @_sophievdb_ Nickname: Soof Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 2 Fun fact: I have a hamster named Whiskey Relationship status: Single Frederique de Vries — Head of MUNAgazine — @freddie.nl Nickname: Fré / Fred / Freddie / Fredder Age: 16 How many MUN(s): This will be my first MUN! Fun fact: I don’t tan, I freckle ;) Relationship status: Single! 7

Meet the staff Mette & Thijmen Emma & Tatum Mette de Brouwer — Crisis Committee Headquarter — @metteguin Nickname: Met Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 2, MUNA last year and LEMUN Fun fact: I always wear two different socks with fun patterns and colours Relationship status: Taken Thijmen van der Meijden — Crisis Committee Headquarter — @thijmen.vm079 Nickname: King Oeliewoelie Age: 17 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: I once made a computer from scratch Relationship status: Single and ready to mingle Emma Penningnieuwland — Head of Finances and Relations — @emma_penning_xx Nickname: Em / Emmie Age: 16 How many MUN(s): This is actually my first MUN! Fun fact: I’ve been playing the harp for about 10 years now and I often give performances! Relationship status: Happy single Tatum Kluiters — Financial Manager — @taatje_123 Nickname: Taat Age: 16 How many MUN(s): This will be my first one Fun fact: I actually can’t think of a fun fact about myself Relationship status: Single Danique & Dorine Joachim & Jafar Danique Turk — Housing Manager & Head of Approval Panel — @danique.tx Nickname: Daantje / Turkiee / Niek / Daan Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: Gets a sugar rush everytime I eat sugar Relationship status: Single Dorine de Graaf — Head of Catering — @dorine.dgx Nickname: ti ti ti Dorine Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 1 Fun fact: I cheat when playing games Relationship status: Single ;) Joachim Verweij — Head of Film and Design — @murphinity Nickname: Murphy / Joa Age: 17 How many MUN(s): 3 Fun fact: Shovel Relationship status: Robijn Black Velvet Klein & Krachtig 42 wasbeurten laundry detergent Jafar Al Ngaar — Webmaster & Assistant Head of Film and Design Nickname: The123QwertyAbc Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 0 Fun fact: … Relationship status: Single 8

Meet the staff Eva & Janne & Loredana Megan & Mohamed Eva de Roode — Pre-MUN Manager & Chair — @evaderoode03 Nickname: Eef Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 3, this Is my fourth time participating Fun fact: My family name is de Roode (translated: the Red) Relationship status: Singleee Janne Jhinna — Pre-MUN Manager & Chair — @janne.jx Nickname: - Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: When I was two years old I fell out of a shopping cart and broke my arm Relationship status: Taken Loredana Lutzu — Pre-MUN Manager & Chair — @loredanalutzu Nickname: Lor Age: 17 How many MUN(s): This will be my 6th MUN Fun fact: I know every One Direction song by heart ;) Relationship status: Single and ready to mingle (jk) Mohamed Khalil — President of the General Assembly (PGA) & Chair — @moo.079 Nickname: يبيبح (for non-arabs habibi) Age: 16 How many MUN(s): 4 Fun fact: I can deadlift 150kg Relationship status: Haram Megan Vlastra — Head of Media and Press Team — @megan.xrm Nickname: Meg / Meeggie Age: 17 How many MUN(s): 1 Fun fact: I love cars and Formula 1 Relationship status: Taken ;) 9

Interview with PGA Could you tell us something about yourself? What’s up? My name is Mohamed Khalil and I’m this year’s President of the General Assembly (PGA). I’m 16 years old, I play basketball and I go to the gym once in a while ;). I’m in my fifth year on the Alfrink College and after my graduation I want to study medicine on the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. What has been your best MUN experience so far? MUNA 2018, when I was in the Crisis Committee as the UK. My partner and I had done only little preparation, but we still managed to nail the debates and pass multiple amendments. What is your favourite part of MUNs? What’s not? However, if I had to choose one thing, it would be the party. The gossip box, plenary session and meeting new people would be my honourable mentions. What do you like about being the PGA? I chose to be PGA so I could be Chair as well. Which was something still missing from the tasks I have already done in MUNs. Furthermore, I find politics very interesting so doing research for this year’s issues was ‘fun’. What is it that you don’t like about being the PGA? Finding guest speakers that fit to the issues was by far the most difficult task. I tried so many different things; I even called the EU to ask if there was someone willing to give a guest lesson about nuclear weapons, sadly enough without success. Is there any advice you would give first time delegates? Being shy is no problem at MUNA. We as Chairs are here to help you grow and allow you to try. So, don’t shy away and instead try to talk as much as possible. I know that it’s easier said than done, but you don’t have to start with giving a whole speech about a resolution. Perhaps start of simple with a point of information. Also use your lobby time as a way to connect with the other delegates, it will make things a lot less awkward and perhaps you will make some friends. 10

MUNA 2020 food Lunch schedule *MUN-directors and staff can join the lunch any time; admins have lunch with their committees. Thursday February 6: Committee GA1, CC GA2, HC GA3, FC, ICJ GA4, SC Friday February 7: Committee GA3, FC, ICJ GA4, SC GA1, HC GA2, CC Lunch time 11:30 - 11:55 12:05 - 12:30 12:40 - 13:05 13:15 - 13:40 — MENU — Friday February 7  Surinamese sandwiches:  Chicken pom  Chicken curry  Vegetarian option: Surinamese sandwich with tempe/tofu  Several types of fruit Interview with Head of Catering Lunch time 11:45 - 12:05 12:15 - 12:35 12:45 - 13:05 13:15 - 13:35 Menu *All of the food is halal. Some gluten free, lactose free and nut free alternatives will also be available. — MENU — Thursday February 6  Nasi and Bami  Chicken sate and chicken drumsticks  Chicken with soy sauce  Vegetarian option: tempe/tofu with nasi and bami  Several types of fruit Could you tell us something about yourself? My name is Dorine de Graaf and I am 16 years old. A fun fact about me is that I am 100% Dutch but don’t like typical Dutch food. In my free time I enjoy hanging out with friends, playing sports and watching Netflix. What is your experience with MUNs so far? This will be my second MUN, last year I joined MUNA as a delegate. It was a great experience meeting new people and experiencing what a MUN is like. However the highlight was definitely the party! What do you like about being the Head of Catering? What I like about being Head of Catering is that I got to decide what kind of food will be served. Also, I personally love cooking (and eating of course ;)) so I really enjoyed looking for food to be served at MUNA this year. 11

MUNA 2020 party The theme of this year’s 15th MUNA party is Blue Planet! It harmonises with the theme of the conference itself: Worlds apart, one world together. Blue stands for unity. Therefore we would like you to wear something that resembles your country. We are looking forward to seeing all of you at the party! — Heads of Party Location: Silverdome on the rocks. Van der Hagenstraat 22, 2722 NT Zoetermeer Date: Thursday February 6 Time: 19:30 - 00:00 Theme: Blue Planet Dresscode: Something representing your country or something blue Everyone will receive an invitation during MUNA. In the invitation you receive a blue wristband. Please put this on as soon as you receive the invitation. By this band we can see that you are participating in MUNA. You need the wristband in order to enter the party. Once you are inside, you are only allowed to go outside when you want to go home or if you are not feeling well. During the party there is a Kissing Contest. There is a small piece of paper in your invitation as well which gives a little more information. 1000 points for SG and CM, 750 points for DSGE, DSGI, PGA and head of Pre-MUN, 500 points for the rest of the staff, 250 points for chairs and a press-team and at last 100 points for admins. 100+ with tongue. HOWEVER, it is very important that people feel comfortable at the party. This means that if someone does NOT want to be kissed you should stop trying!!! *Any use or possession of alcohol, drugs and/ or weapons is strongly prohibited. Guards will be examining everybody at the entrance! 12

Excursion programme All foreign students and MUN-directors will go on a fun and educational excursion on Wednesday morning. This will be very exciting as the students will get a chance to visit a unique place in the Netherlands. One of the excursions will be at the Humanity House. This offers an intriguing experience as you will find out what it would be like to suddenly have to leave your house and flee. A guest speaker will be present who will talk about his or her experience with fleeing from home. It offers a short but powerful tour that is both educating and at times a bit scary. Another trip goes to the Peace Palace. The Peace Palace holds the International Court of Justice, which is also a committee we have at the MUNA conference! So, if you are interested in what it all looks like in real life, this is the place to be. The building has truly beautiful architecture both inside and outside. In the Gevangenenpoort (translated: prison gate) you can see and experience how people were locked up, judged and punished in the past. In which cells were they stuck? Was there a difference between poor and rich prisoners? Where did they hear their verdict? And what penalties were given? You will hear everything about this during a tour with a guide. A few important moments in Dutch history took place here, such as the murder of the De Witt brothers. During this tour you will also be able to see the national collection of torture and punishment tools in the museum. And last but not least, the Staten-Generaal Tour. This tour takes you to the Ridderzaal, the First and Second Chamber. As a result, you will not only hear stories about the current use of the Binnenhof, but also get a complete overview of the special history of this place. Who ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal? What happens on Prince's Day? And finally, what exactly is going on in the First and Second chamber? After the excursions you will get some free time in The Hague to go shopping, eat some lunch or just stroll around. Whatever you do, we hope you will have a great time! The excursions will take place on Wednesday February 5 from 8:15 to 13:45. 13

Important conference information Conference programme Day 1: Wednesday February 5 08:15 - 13:45 Excursions foreign students 14:15 Roll call committees 14:30 - 15:00 Committee workshops 15:00 - 15:45 Opening ceremony 15:45 - 18:00 Conference Day 2: Thursday February 6 08:15 08:30 Roll call committees Begin conference 11:30 - 13:40 Lunch according to schedule 17:00 End conference 19:30 - 00:00 MUNA party 09:00 Day 3: Friday February 7 Roll call committees 09:15 - 14:30 Conference 11:45 - 13:35 Lunch according to schedule 14:30 - 16:00 Plenary session 16:45 - 18:00 Closing ceremony Room allocations Room Cloakroom GA1 GA2 GA3 GA4 SC CC ICJ HC FC Room-number 002 142 143 144 145 147 042 044 047 146 14 Delegates are expected to wear formal clothing and uphold the standards MUNs are known for. Usually, this means a suit with a blouse and tie for the boys. Girls often wear either a skirt or a classy pair of trousers with a blouse and perhaps a jacket. Other options are: a formal dress, a jumpsuit, or a fancy suit; it doesn’t really matter, as long as your chosen clothes reach knee-length and show a bit of modesty. If you neither identify as a boy or a girl: wear whatever you feel comfortable in, we are not here to judge you. For everyone: don’t forget to make your outfit complete with a formal pair of shoes. The mentioned ideas are only suggestions, as long as you keep it formal, just wear something that makes you comfortable and just be yourself. Dress code Emergencies In case of an emergency you can seek the help of a nearby staff member or, if you are unable to reach a member or the staff is unable to help you, you can contact the following number: Mr van Es +31644878836 This number can only to be contacted in cases of real emergencies.

MUNA 2020 Chairs and issues Chairs • The question of the violation of human right regarding privacy, by the Chinese Committee GA1 GA2 GA3 GA4 SC CC ICJ HC FC Chairs Mohamed Khalil Iris Adriani Eva de Roode Janne Jhinna Tim Visser Hugo Santangelo Isha Moharir Ines Sehli Thijs de Ruijter Annelieve Ruyters Loredana Lutzu Thirze Drabbels Riks Molenaar Erwin Li Redmer Marck Sander de Jong Stan Meijers Sam Beckers Ties van der Linden Thomas van der Voort Issues GA1 (General Assembly 1: disarmament and international security) • The question of a replacement for the INF treaty, taking into consideration the development of nuclear weapons in other countries. • The question of the rising tensions between Saudi-Arabia and Iran, and its effects on peace in the Middle East. • The question of re-opening discussion related to regulations as stated in the Arms Trade Treaty addressing international trade of weapons and arms. GA2 (General Assembly 2: human rights) • The question of the violation of the human rights regarding non-citizens and immigrants in the United States of America. 15 government. • The question of ceasing further child labour in countries on the emerging market economies. GA3 (General Assembly 3: environmental, humanitarian and health issues) • The question of managing international pollution into international waters. • The question of safety regulations due to climate change enhancing natural disasters. • The question of the use of antibiotics, following the rise of antibiotic resistance in the past decades. GA4 (General Assembly 4: special political and decolonisation) • The question of international cooperation in the responsible uses of outer space. • The question of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest causing conflict regarding the displacement of indigenous tribes. • The question of resolving the illegal Israeli settlements in the West bank. SC (Security Council) • The question of resolving the fatal conflict in Yemen and the situation of the Houthi Rebels. • Tensions rising between Iran and Saudi Arabia leading to a third world-war taking place in the Middle East. • The question of finding innovative ways to prevent further spread and development of terrorist group over the globe. ICJ (International Court of Justice) • The recognition of the Armenian Genocide, regarding Turkey and Armenia. • The aerial herbicide spraying, regarding Ecuador and Colombia. • Territorial dispute of the border between Libya and Chad, regarding Libya and Chad. • War crimes committed by the USA during the Vietnamese war, regarding USA and Vietnam.

Appendices Here, you will find all the extra information you need in order to make your experience as a delegate at MUNA go as smoothly as possible. The appendices include: an approval panel infographic, a list with MUN-terminology, a list of points and motions, a list of introductory phrases, a sample resolution, a sample charge for the ICJ, and a sample game for the HC. Approval panel infographic Write or improve resolution and find cosubmitters Improve resolution Main submitter disapproved Send to chair ga(number)munalfrink@gmail.com (f.e. ga1munalfrink@gmail.com ) Subject e-mail should read: committee - main submitter - issue - 1 approved Approval Panel approved DONE! :) disapproved second time SORRY :( Resolution cannot be handed in again disapproved first time Put marked first version on hand back table Send improved version to apmunalfrink@gmail.com Subject e-mail should read: committee - main submitter - issue - 2 - abbreviation of teacher who marked first version 16

MUN-terminology Ad-hoc debate Administrative Staff Amendment Amendment to the first degree A debate that does not start with an entire resolution, but in which a resolution is built up clause by clause during the debate. This type of debate is used in the SC and CC The assistants of the Chair. They assist in voting procedures and passing notes. An amendment is an alteration to a specific part of the resolution. The intention of a proposed amendment should be to improve the resolution, thus helping the resolution to pass. Amendments are either of the first or the second degree. An amendment made to a resolution. Amendment to the second degree An amendment made to an amendment of the first degree. Chair Co-submitter Delegate Delegation Executive Staff General Assembly International Court of Justice Lobbying Main submitter Merging MUN-Director MUNA-Staff Operative Clause Policy Statement Point of Information Pre-Ambulatory clause President Resolution Secretary General Security Council United Nations The person who is in charge of the debate. The Chair decides who may speak, what is and what is not in order. The Chair’s decision is always final. A delegation that supports the resolution before the debate has started. A member of a delegation. A group of delegates representing a certain country or organization. Students in charge of the organization of the MUN- conference. The General Assembly (GA) is the main deliberative body of the UN. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the UN. It settles, in accordance with international law, the legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions on legal questions. The negotiating, concerning resolutions, between delegates before the actual debate. The delegation submitting the resolution. The main submitter will read out the operative clauses at the start of a debate and will give the first speech. The process where several draft resolutions are put together and become one resolution, which can be discussed in the forum. The teachers accompanying the students from a school. These are the people who are responsible for the organization of the MUNA-conference. A clause in a resolution that tells the reader what the resolution proposes to do and what measures need to be taken. A brief but comprehensive definition of the issue, plus the relationship to the country’s national interest. A question to gain clarification, either to the speaker who has the floor or to the Chair, by a member of the house who has been duly recognized by the Chair. A clause in a resolution, which tells the reader what has gone before, why or on what basis the resolution was written. A clause in a resolution, which tells the reader what has gone before, why or on what basis the resolution was written. The proposal made by the delegates on how to deal with a certain issue. The ‘leader’ of the conference. The UN Charter gives the SC primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and the Council alone has the power to back up its declarations with actions to ensure compliance with them. Organization set up after the Second World War, with the aim of achieving peace, justice and social progress. 17

List of points and motions Points Rising to Points: General information Points during the debate are always a personal matter; hence they never require a second. Points during debate may NOT interrupt a speaker except for a Point of Personal Privilege, which refers to audibility. All other points will be dealt with only when there is a debating pause, i.e. when the speaker having the floor yields to points of information, to another delegation, or to the Chair. Point of Personal Privilege This point always refers to the personal comfort and well-being of a delegate and is therefore not debatable nor does it require a second. It may only interrupt a speaker when it refers to audibility. Example: “Could the windows please be closed? It is getting cold in here.” Point of Order This point refers to mistakes in the rules of procedure, i.e. the Chair making a mistake in debating time or when a delegate insults another delegate. It is not debatable and may never interrupt a speaker. Point of Information to the Speaker This point is a question directed to the delegate having the floor, and who has indicated that he/she is willing to yield to points of information. After a delegate finishes his/her speech a Chair should always ask whether or not the delegate is open to any points of information, before recognizing delegates to ask such a point. The point must always be formulated as a question, i.e. ‘Is the speaker aware of the fact…’ A short introductory statement may precede the question. When the delegate asking this point feels a more specified answer is needed, the delegate may want to ask another point, the delegate does this through a ‘request for a follow up’. This may only be done once consecutively, the Chair may decide to grant this or not. Example: “Could the honourable delegate, as she is the main submitter of this resolution, please explain to the house what she intends with clause 3?” Point of Information to the Chair This point is a question to the Chair, which could refer to almost anything, from issues to personal priorities. It may never interrupt a speaker. Please answer clearly and swiftly in order to move on with the debate quickly. Example: “At what time do we adjourn for lunch?” or “Could the Chair inform the house whether Western Sahara is a sovereign state?” 18 Point of Parliamentary Inquiry This is a point of information to the Chair concerning Rules of Procedures, which may never interrupt a speaker. Example: “Could the Chair please explain to the house what is meant by closed debate?” Motions Motions: General information Different than points, motions involve the committee as a whole, and therefore always need a ‘second’. Similarly, a delegate is also allowed to object to a motion. Motion to Move the previous question (Motion to move to Voting Procedure) When this motion is called in an open debate, it means that the house will be moving to the voting procedure. When it is called in a closed debate there are two situations: if it is the time in favour, the motion calls for moving to the time against; if it is the time against, the motion calls for moving to the voting procedure. It is also known as the “Motion to Move to Voting Procedure.” Remember that it requires a second and it may not interrupt a speaker. In any case of objections from the house, the final decision is up to the Chairs. Do not forget that Chairs have the right to overrule the motions. Motion to adjourn the debate This motion calls for a break in the debate and if passed the debate will come to an immediate end, but can be restarted by any member of the committee. During the debate on an issue, any delegate may move the adjournment of the issue debated on. The proposer of this motion will give a short speech on why the item should be adjourned. The Chair will then recognise two speakers in favour and two against this motion, the Chair may limit the time of the speakers but please be consistent. For this motion to pass, a simple majority is needed. Tied results, mean that the motion has failed. Try to prevent this motion from being used, as it will not ensure an efficient debate. Motion to table a resolution This motion is prohibited during MUNA. Motion to extend debate time This motion asks for more time to debate. It is at the Chairs discretion, thus not debatable. A second is needed, if proposed from the floor. Motion for the division of the house This motion calls for the Chairs to ask each delegation separately what they vote, when voting results are very close (abstentions no longer in order). This is very time consuming and should only be used on very important votes when results are quite close or the voting procedure was not clear enough.

List of introductory phrases Every clause of your resolution has to start with one of the phrases stated below. There are separate phrases for pre-ambulatory clauses and operative clauses. Some phrases only delegates of the Security Council are allowed to use (of course they can also use the other phrases). These phrases are listed separately. Pre-ambulatory phrases Acknowledging Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Confident Congratulating Conscious Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply conscious Operative phrases Affirms Approves Asks Authorizes Calls for Calls upon Confirms Congratulates Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Hopes Insists Expresses its appreciation Invites Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further recommends Further requests Further resolves Proclaims Proposes Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Requests 19 Resolves Seeks Stresses Strongly affirms Strongly urges Suggests Supports Trusts Urges Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Having considered Pointing out Having devoted attention Reaffirming Having examined Having heard Realizing Recalling Having received Having studied Expressing its appreciation Keeping in mind Expressing its concern Noting Expressing its satisfaction Noting further Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Recognizing Referring Reminding Seeking Stressing Noting with appreciation Taking into account Noting with approval Noting with deep concern Taking note Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Welcoming Observing Taking into consideration Viewing with appreciation

List of introductory phrases List of introductory phrases for the Security Council only The following phrases are only allowed to be used by the delegations in the Security Council. These may not be used in any other committee. Security Council pre-ambulatory phrases Declaring Deploring Further deploring Decides Further declaring Security Council operative phrases Condemns Decides Declares Declares accordingly Deplores Designates Strongly condemns 20

Sample resolution FORUM: General Assembly 3: Social, Cultural and Humanitarian QUESTION OF: Preserving Minority Languages SUBMITTED BY: The Republic of Turkey CO-SUBMITTERS: Belgium, Latvia, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russian Federation, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Egypt, Malta, Finland THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THIRD COMMITTEE, Viewing with appreciation the cultural diversity and history of the planet, Keeping in mind the natural development of languages and dialects around the world, Noting with deep concern the actions taken by some states to change the demographic and linguistic identity of parts of their states, Expressing its concern for the efforts and campaigns of certain member states to discourage the use of minority languages in their countries, or even eradicate them from public discourse, 1. Affirms that linguistic minorities around the world have the right to speak their own languages in private and communal spheres, in addition to using them in legal proceedings; 2. Calls upon all member states to not discourage or obstruct the natural course of such languages in any way, shape, or form; 3. Expresses its hope that countries working to counter the use of minority languages will change their national policies in favour of linguistic diversity, through means such as but not limited to: a) Encouraging the voluntary teaching of these languages in schools, b) Allowing regional media outlets to use minority languages in newspapers and on radio and television programs, c) Accepting testimonies given in minority languages and their use in other court proceedings, d) The appropriate signing of public services in the relevant minority language of said geographical area, public services that could be signed included but is not limited to: i. Road signs, ii. Public transport, iii. State-owned property; 4. Recommends that the UN or any of its bodies should attempt to save languages dying a ‘natural death’ due to their small and declining number of speakers, through means such as but not limited to: a) Preserving written examples of the minority language, b) Encouraging young people to learn the minority language, c) Encouraging speakers of a minority language to pass it on to the younger generation; 5. Further recommends the use and the promotion of minority languages in the states where they are spoken, by: a) Promoting the use of these languages in the form of music or theatre, b) Writing official documents in both minority and official languages, so that all groups can benefit equally, c) Organising seminars and speeches concerning these languages, in order for people to be informed about them. 21

Sample charge ICJ FORUM: The International Court of Justice QUESTION OF: Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE; finds, with a vote of fourteen to one, to uphold the following consequences on the question: A. By fourteen votes to one, The construction of the wall being built by Israel, the occupying Power, in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, and its associated régime, are contrary to international law; B. By fourteen votes to one, Israel is under an obligation to terminate its breaches of international law; it is under an obligation to cease forthwith the works of construction of the wall being built in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, to dismantle forthwith the structure therein situated, and to repeal or render ineffective forthwith all legislative and regulatory acts relating thereto; C. By fourteen votes to one, Israel is under an obligation to make reparation for all damage caused by the construction of the wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem; D. By thirteen votes to two, All States are under an obligation not to recognize the illegal situation resulting from the construction of the wall and not to render aid or assistance in maintaining the situation created by such construction; all States parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12August 1949 have in addition the obligation, while respecting the United Nations Charter and international law, to ensure compliance by Israel with international humanitarian law as embodied in that Convention; E. By fourteen votes to one, The United Nations, and especially the General Assembly and the Security Council, should consider what further action is required to bring to an end the illegal situation resulting from the construction of the wall and the associated régime, taking due account of the present Advisory Opinion. 22

Sample game HC Spring, 1901 England: A Liv.-Yor. F Lon.-North Sea F Edi.-Norw. Sea Germany: A Ber.-Kiel A Mun.-Ruhr F Kiel-Den. Russia: A Mos.-Ukr. A War.-Gal. F St. P.-Both. F Sev.-Bla. Turkey: A Con.-Bull A Smy.-Con. F Ank.-Bla. Austria-Hungary: A Vie.-Tri. A Bud.-Gal. F Tri.-Alb. Italy: A Ven.-Pie. A Rome-yen. F Nap.-Ion. France: A Par.-Burl A Mar.-Spa. F Bre.Pic. All these moves succeed, except that the two pieces ordered to the Black Sea and the two ordered to Galicia do not move. As the moves are read, it is a good idea to move each block so that an end or corner projects into the space to which it has been ordered. As soon as the proper result is clear, the piece should be pushed over into its new position or back to its old one. Retreats: none. Fall, 1901 England: A Yor.-Norway F North Sea C A Yor.-Norway F Norw. Sea-Bar. Germany: A Kiel-Hol. A Ruhr-Bel. F Stands Russia: A Ukr S F Sev.-Rum. A War.-Gal. F Both.-Swe. F Sev.-Rum. Turkey: A Bull-Ser. A Con.-Bull F Ank.-Bla. Austria-Hungary: A Tri. Stand A Bud.-Ser. F Alb.-Gre. Italy: A yen. Stands A Pie.-Mar. F Ion.-Tun. France: A Burl, Mar. A Spa.-Por. F Pic.-Bel. All of these moves succeed, except that the two pieces ordered to Belgium, Marseilles, and Serbia do not move, and the move Con.-Bull does not succeed. Retreats: none. England builds F Edi., Germany builds F Kiel and A Mun., Russia builds A St. P. and A Sev., Turkey builds A Smy., Austria-Hungary builds A Vie., Italy builds F Naples, France builds F Marseilles. France builds one for Portugal, but none for Spain, which her army passed through in the Spring. Spring, 1902 Germany: A Hol. Bell A Ruhr S Hol.-Bell A Mun.-Burl F Den. Stands F Kiel-Hol. Russia: A Ukr. S F Rum. A Gall-Bud. A St. P.-Norway A Sev. S F Rum. F Swe. S St. P.-Norway F Rum. Stands Turkey: A Bull-Rum. A Con.-Bull A Smy.-Arm. F Bla. S Bull-Rum. Austria-Hungary: A Tri.-Bud. A Vie.-Bud' A Bud.Ser. F Stands Italy: A yen. Stands A Pie.-Mar. F Tun.-W Med. F Nap.-Tyr. France: A Burl S F Pic.-Bell A Por.-Spa. F Pic.-Bell F Mar. Stands England: A Nor.-St. P. F North Sea-Norway F Bar. S Nor.-St. P. F Edi.-North Sea Only the following moves take place: Hol.-Bell, Kiel-Hol., Smy.-Arm., Bud.-Ser., Tun.-W. Med., Nap.-Tyr., Por.-Spa. Note that Norway and St. Petersburg are adjacent by land at the extreme north. Here two armies clashed, each with one support. Since they have equal strength behind them and each is trying to occupy the position of the other, the result is a stand-off. Note also that Sweden and Norway are adjacent along a coast line at the south, thus the fleet in Sweden can support an attack on Norway. The supporting move Burl S F Pic.-Bel. was "cut" by the attack of the German piece in Munich. The Austro-Hungarian fleet could not have supported the action in Serbia, because the fleet cannot move to an inland province, therefore cannot support in such a province. Retreats: none. Fall, 1902 Germany: A Ruhr-Burl A Mun. S Ruhr-Burl A Bell S Ruhr-Burl F Den.-Swe. F Hol. S A Bell Russia: A St. P.-Norway F Swe. S St. P.-Norw. F Rum. S A Sev. A Sev. S F Rum.AGal.SFRum.AUkr.SASev. Turkey: A Bull-Rum. A Con.-Bull A Arm.-Sev. F S A Bull-Rum. Austria-Hungary: A Vie.-Gal. A Tri.-Bud. A Ser. S Turk. A Bull Rum. F Stands Italy: A yen.-Pie. A Pie.-Mar. F W Med.-Mid. F Tyr.-Gulf of L. France: A Burl-Bell F Pic. S Burl-Bell A Spa. S F Mar. F Mar. S A Spa. England: A Norw.-St. P. F Bar. S Norw.-St. P. F North Sea-Norway F Edi.-North Sea The following moves take place: Norw.-St. P., North Sea-Norway, Edi.-North Sea, Ruhr-Burl, Bull-Rum., Con.-Bull, Tri.-Bud., W. Med.-Mid., Tyr., Gulf of L., Russian F Rum. is annihilated. Retreats: Russia, St. P.-Mos.; France, Burl-Gas. Germany builds F Kiel, Russia removes A Gal., Turkey builds F Smyrna, Austria-Hungary builds A Tri., Italy does not change, France builds A Paris, England builds F Lon. 23

Floor plan Ground floor First floor 24

Sponsors We are very happy to present this year’s sponsors of the MUNA 2020 conference. A big thank you goes out to all of our sponsors who have been supporting MUNA for many years now. However, we would also like to thank a couple of new sponsors for supporting this special 15th edition of MUNA. We all hope that MUNA will be able to rely on this amazing support for many more years to come. One of the funds that has been supporting MUNA for a lot of years is ‘Fonds 1818’. Fonds 1818 is an organisation committed to creating a better society and we are very happy to announce that MUNA is again one of the projects that is offered financial support. A new sponsor for our 2020 conference is ‘The Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds’; a fund that supports culture, nature and science in the Netherlands. In particular, we would like to thank the Mr. J.G. Hoogland Fonds, which supports language-based projects and focuses mainly on young people. Also, many thanks to the Theo Quené Fonds, which aims at promoting knowledge about languages and the use of them. Many thanks go out to two other organisations that have been supporting MUNA for a couple of years as well: ‘Ik ben geweldig’ and ‘JIP Zoetermeer’. Furthermore, we would like to thank AAC Engineers and Constructors, an amazing new sponsor, for offering our conference financial support this year. Then last but not least, a big thank you goes out to Albert Heijn De Leyens for sponsoring our 15th conference with a lot of healthy snacks! 25

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Model United Nations Alfrink 2020 Worlds apart, one world together www.munalfrink.nl @MUNAlfrink @MUNAlfrink @munalfrink This magazine was made by the Head of MUNAgazine for MUNA 2020 Frederique de Vries. With special thanks to all MUNA staff members and all of our sponsors. MUNA 2005-2020 © ALFRINK COLLEGE

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